Dating english silver from hallmark Single reise buchen
Scottish silver before 1975, like gold, bears a thistle mark.A higher silver standard, Britannia silver (958.4) was required to be used for a short period at the end of the 17 century, bearing the figure of Britannia instead of the lion.
Before 1910, French platinum jewelry may have a maker's mark, but it was not hallmarked. Other symbols may be used in combination with these numbers.
In Scotland, a thistle was used instead of the crown.
From 1798 to 1854, only gold assayed at 18 and 22 ct was permissible and hallmarked. The fineness in thousandths was added to these karat marks from 1854 to 1932.
From 1908 to 1917, a right-facing profile was used.
After the Russian Revolution, the mark was a right-facing workers profile with a hammer, and the fineness in thousandths.In 1932, 15 and 12 ct were abandoned in favor of 14 ct, which was also marked 585. In 1975, all gold marks were standardized, and the crown mark and the fineness in thousandths became the only marks to be used in addition to place of assay and date letter.